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Austin Wasmund Volunteered to present Diabetes awareness information and provided a speech for inservice to help the mental health assisted living community. A warm thank you and hope for his continued success as a novice writer and scholar.

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Written by:

Austin Wasmund

October 6th, 2018

Diabetes: How to find and put a stop to it

    Hello folks, I’m Austin Wasmund a student of College of Western Idaho going for my English major to become an author one day, and I’m here today to talk to you all about what diabetes is and the differences of type 1 and type 2. Along with this we’ll look into what causes it, how to find it, how to treat it, how people die from it, children vs. adults diabetes, and how we can stop diabetes. So first off, let’s focus on the big question what is diabetes and how can we tell between what type 1 and type 2 diabetes is. The best way to define diabetes is to use a google translation for this subject it is “a disease in which the body’s ability to produce or respond to the hormone insulin is impaired, resulting in abnormal metabolism of carbohydrates and elevated levels of glucose in the blood and urine (google translate). Or in basic definition it’s when your body is producing to much sugar for it to with-handle.

So now with that out of the way what’s the difference between type 1 and type 2 diabetes in this situation.

Type 1 diabetes is unfortunately when the person is born with diabetes  and they had no say in the matter.

As for type 2 how its received is different this is when someone eats or drinks too many forms of sugars that their body cannot process quickly enough through the body so those carbs become fats making people lose energy to go outside and want to have a nice jog or run on a greenbelt.

But the question to ask is: “Now, why can’t our body quickly process carbs like other nutrients?”

In order to answer this we need to know that all carbohydrates can be processed, but they’re processed at different speeds. First we have the simple carbohydrates these are like your fruits or natural sugars; these carbs are processed efficiently through since there’s nothing to break these sugars down and easily turn them into glucose for our cells in the blood stream.

Then, what about complex carbohydrates? These carbs are a lot thicker which means the thicker the carb is the longer it will take your body to break down the nutrient just to get to the sugar, meaning some of these potential sugars will just be adding more to someone’s body mass. But why does it take so long? Well the best way to answer this is to show the process it goes through which on the website SFGate the author Annie breaks this process down nicely:

Your system has to work hard to deconstruct these molecules into simpler forms. When you chew food that has starch, such as potatoes, whole-grain foods or corn, saliva in your mouth goes to work. Saliva engulfs complex starch compounds and turns them into a type of simple carbohydrate called maltose. Once maltose molecules reach your small intestine, enzymes turn them into glucose and they enter your bloodstream in the same way as sugars (Anne).

If we look at all this information most people would think that this process is long, and they’re right. Which is why I’m here to help clarify further on what diabetes is and how we can put a stop to it. But before we can even jump to the prevention of this, we need to dig deeper into diabetes and focus on how we can be diagnosed with it.

    Most days, some people would just assume people who are overweight to have diabetes, but they would be uneducated. There’s more to this than meets the eye. So how can we tell someone has diabetes? Well first things first, we need to know how to find it in type 1 and type 2 forms. When it comes to type 1 diabetes there are three types of tests you can have taken for children to find the answer.

First, you have a random blood sugar test in this test if the blood sugar levels read “200 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL), or 11.1 millimoles per liter (mmol/L), or higher suggests diabetes (Type 1 Diabetes).” Next, there is the Glycosylated hemoglobin (AC1) test, “This test indicates your child’s average blood sugar level for the past two to three months. Specifically, the test measures the percentage of blood sugar attached to the oxygen-carrying protein in red blood cells (hemoglobin).

An A1C level of 6.5 percent or higher on two separate tests indicates diabetes (Type 1).” Finally, there is the Fasting blood sugar test, in this test they take a blood sample of the child’s fasting overnight. If the blood sugar level reads level of 126 mg/dL (7.0 mmol/L) or higher indicates type 1 diabetes. Along with this information, these are just the three main ways you can test for diabetes but there are many other ways you can test for diabetes like the blood test and the urine test. While testing the child make sure to keep them happy and not scared because the child’s emotion levels can play a critical level in stopping the diabetes.

With type 1’s forming an understanding, it’s time to focus on type 2. There are 4 ways to test to see if someone who wasn’t born with diabetes has the disease.

First, we have the Glycosylated hemoglobin test (AC1) test yet again and requires the same diagnosis data for type one diabetes. But this test can also be used to help tell if a type 2 diabetes is on the verge of forming through the rankings of 5.7 through 6.4 becoming a premonition that diabetes might appear if not taken care of soon. Secondly, we have the random blood sugar test yet again as well. In this blood test if the levels are 200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L) or higher then the chances of diabetes is extremely high. Third, we have our final overlapping test from type 1 diabetes which would be the fasting blood sugar test. However for this test the test results for type 2 diabetes is different from type 1 diabetes.

For type 2 in this test you need to keep a lookout for these numbers “A fasting blood sugar level less than 100 mg/dL (5.6 mmol/L) is normal. A fasting blood sugar level from 100 to 125 mg/dL (5.6 to 6.9 mmol/L) is considered prediabetes. If it’s 126 mg/dL (7 mmol/L) or higher on two separate tests, you have diabetes (Type 2 Diabetes).” Finally, for the final test for type 2 diabetes we have the oral glucose tolerance test, in this test its focuses on the patient to “fast overnight, and the fasting blood sugar level is measured. Then [the patient drinks] a sugary liquid, and blood sugar levels are tested periodically for the next two hours (Type 2).” If the levels reads less than 140 mg/dL (7.8 mmol/L) it is considered normal and the patient has nothing to worry about.

A reading between 140 and 199 mg/dL (7.8 mmol/L and 11.0 mmol/L) indicates “pre-diabetes” and allows the patient know that they need some help as soon as possible. A reading of 200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L) or higher after two hours may indicate diabetes and shows they need help immediately no questions asked. Finally, with what it takes to have diabetes through test results, how can we treat these possible or in need of help patients?

For type 1 diabetes there is a sad fact that is hard to face, since the patient was born with the disease there is no known solutions to permanently destroy this, but there are luckily treatments out there to at least temporarily stop it’s effects. The treatment to help temporarily stop this disease requires blood sugar monitoring, insulin therapy, healthy eating and regular exercise, which yes that even means for the child since this treatment plan will change with the child as they grow up to become an adult. When it comes to monitoring the blood sugar levels it is recommended to check the child’s level at least four times a day but it wouldn’t hurt to check them a little more than four.

With this it would be wise to make sure frequent testing is present for the child to make sure the child’s blood sugar levels remain the same for his or her target range. This range will grow and change with the child.

If it’s hard to test the blood sugar levels another way you can monitor their levels is through the Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) it is one of the newest ways people can monitor blood sugar levels, but it is to be noted that this form of monitoring would be most helpful for people who don’t experience warning symptoms from the hypoglycemia (low blood sugar). The CGM will have a small needle that will be inserted under the skin to check the blood sugar levels. Now with this information in mind there are 2 important things to note. While sticking the needle into the kids arm making sure to keep them calm and relaxed by talking to them so you don’t have the needle accidentally prick you and mix the test results creating an error in the data when the child swings there arms around in fear.

Also, once the needle is in the skin be sure to know that the results that are received on the CGM aren’t as accurate as the blood sugar level monitoring.

Next you have insulin for type 1 diabetes now this can’t be said enough with how important this is if the child is young keep their emotion levels calm or focused on something else if they are scared of needles. With the insulin, there are 4 types of them which the Mayo Clinic focuses on these types and how they work really well:

  • Rapid-acting insulin. Insulin therapies such as lispro (Humalog), aspart (NovoLog) and glulisine (Apidra) start working within 15 minutes, peak in about one hour and last four hours.
  • Short-acting insulin. Therapies such as human insulin (Humulin R) should be injected 20 to 30 minutes before a meal, peak in 1.5 to two hours and last four to six hours.
  • Intermediate-acting insulin. Therapies such as NPH insulin (Humulin N) start working within about one hour, peak in about six hours and last 12 to 24 hours.
  • Long-acting insulin. Therapies such as insulin glargine (Lantus) and insulin detemir (Levemir) have almost no peak and may provide coverage for as long as 20 to 26 hours.

An important thing to keep note of is that each new child will require a different type of insulin because each child has a different character trait, gene record, and what kind of insulin their mental focus will handle. Mayo Clinic also help describes 3 types of insulin children with diabetes can receive.

  • Fine needle and syringe. An advantage of needle and syringe is that some different types of insulin can be mixed in a single injection, reducing the number of injections.
  • Insulin pen. This device looks like an ink pen, except the cartridge is filled with insulin. Pens with mixed insulin preparations are available, but these mixtures generally aren’t tailored for children.
  • Insulin pump. This is a device about the size of a cell phone that is worn on the outside of the body. A tube connects a reservoir of insulin to a catheter inserted under the skin of the abdomen. The pump can be used in conjunction with CGM.

Knowing these forms of information, we can see that there is a way to avoid a form of a needle so try and make sure to keep the child calm because you are stabbing them with something very pointy and intimidating.

    Yes, the insulin may be a scary factor in treating the type 1 diabetes, but there are some brighter sides to the treatment it is said people with this form of diabetes should eat healthy (ex: fruits, vegetables, whole grains), and exercise and make sure on the side to watch the carbs and blood sugar levels.

As for people who have type 2 diabetes they have a little bit easier plan of attack to calm the possible chance of death within them. It is required they eat healthy, exercise, monitor their blood sugar and this isn’t definite, but highly recommended for this form of diabetes have a type of insulin at the ready to puncture into the skin to calm down the blood sugar levels that could lead to a heart attack.

    Now, I may have jabbered on a lot of insulin being like a holy grail for diabetes, but with every plus there is a minus and insulin falls in this terminology of the world quite easily. People who are on the verge of making it to type 2 diabetes might have insulin resistance. If this is the case then the prediabetes has a high of becoming type 2 diabetes. Well how can we prevent this or at least somewhat overcome it.

First we need to know who exactly has insulin resistance. Here are some traits that Mark MacGill from the website medical news today found:

The following are all risk factors for insulin resistance, prediabetes, and diabetes, and some can be modified by lifestyle changes or medical help:

  • Overweight and obesity (primarily abdominal obesity)
  • Sedentary lifestyle – not engaging in physical activity regularly
  • Smoking
  • Sleep issues

I know earlier in here I stated that even obese people might not have diabetes and that is still true on so many levels. But it’s still considered a factor when it comes to the medical field for one reason to many sugars which means higher blood sugar. Where can we find these extremely high sugared items well it’s obvious donuts, soda, ice cream, fried food, processed food, and cake! That is just a small amount of what’s on the list, there’s a lot more from where that came from.

So how can we stop the insulin resistance?

Honestly it’s such a simple answer that it’s so hard for a lot of people today to take on the initiative because of how addicting the sugars are. The only best way to put some prevention towards the resistance of insulin is to stop eating sugary foods and drinking sugary drinks.

    Now as we understand how to treat diabetes we need to understand the so what out of all that information above of why it matters and what it could mean to you. First things first we need to know just how many people can or have died previously from diabetes in a report made in 2017 made by the National Diabetes statistics report they have reported in the year 2015 they found that: “Diabetes was the seventh leading cause of death in the United States in 2015. This finding is based on 79,535 death certificates in which diabetes was listed as the underlying cause of death (crude rate, 24.7 per 100,000 persons). Diabetes was listed as any cause of death on 252,806 death certificates in 2015 (crude rate, 78.7 per 100,000 persons).” Seeing these numbers are eye opening. These numbers may seem small in the numbers of trillions of humans, but this is still a huge amounts of deaths resolved only around diabetes.

Just think how bad the year 2018 is right now or how bad it could be. So how can we stop these increasing numbers well like I said earlier in the treatment plans we have to follow those procedures, as for people on the verge of diabetes- they just need to start eating healthier.

    Finally we have arrived at the pinnacle of the information of why this information should truly matter. I think the facts say it all diabetes is bad, you can die, it hurts. But let me give you a story of myself and how this all relates to me. I hate to admit it, but I might be on the verge of getting diabetes. why? Well the answer is simple the sugars I’ve been eating are so addictive truly they are it’s almost like a cigarette if you think about it every sugar you eat from the sugary foods is like your puff of smoke on a cigarette leading you closer and closer to a life of diabetes and heart attacks.

But knowing I have been getting closer and closer to this truth I have been doing a simple trick that could help people. It’s a piece of advice that my mother got from a counselor that I overheard. She said to not stop smoking just like that it can lead to harm to you dramatically. Same can be said with trying to prevent diabetes.

If we just flat out stop eating sugars our bodies will begin to decline in many ways our body still needs some forms of sugars, you just need to limit the intake of sugars you receive. Which is what I have been doing.

I don’t eat as much of the sugary foods as my previous self has, yes I’m still eating some really high carb meals, but that doesn’t mean I don’t walk. Everyday I head to my college usually in the morning or eating a heavy course of carbs or sugars I walk around the whole campus listening to music. Meaning I can still enjoy some of the delicious sugars while at it getting a nice thought provoking walk in on the side before class begins. All I’m trying to say is one listen to all the facts they are there to be noticed, but two to not stop completely gradually put closure to sugary treats and the high carb meals if you want to avoid the doctor and hefty hospital bill.

Work Cited

Anne, Melodie. “Do Bodies Process Carbs Differently?” Healthy Eating | SF Gate, 11 June

2018, healthyeating.sfgate.com/bodies-process-carbs-differently-3176.html.

MacGill, Markus. “Insulin Resistance: Causes, Symptoms, and Prevention.” Medical News

Today, MediLexicon International, 17 Feb. 2017, www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/305567.php.

“Type 1 Diabetes in Children.” Mayo Clinic, Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and

Research, 16 Aug. 2017, www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/type-1-diabetes-in-children/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20355312.

“Type 2 Diabetes.” Mayo Clinic, Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research,

15 Sept. 2018, www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/type-2-diabetes/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20351199.